THE OCTOPUS

Hello! I  will be doing a segment on my blog where I talk about my favorite animals. I will start by talking  about my favorite of all, the octopus. Octopuses are very unique and amazing animals,  I will be sharing some of their most interesting facts  that you may not know.

Octopus-Wallpapers-1

Which Phylum does they belong?

Octopuses are cephalopods of the Phylum Mollusca, one of the biggest phyla in the animal kingdom.

The plural for octopus, is Octopuses, not octopi

  • In Latin, lots of plurals end with ‘’i’’ and many adopted this mistake, using the word octopi, but the word octopus is a Greek word.
  • This mistake was so frequent that it almost became an alternate word and you can occasionally see people still using ”octopi”.

OCTOPUSES HAVE ARMS, NOT TENTACLES

  • This is another common mistake that people do when refering to the cephalopods limbs. Octopuses have eight arms, not tentacles.
  • Tentacles have suckers at their ends while arms have suckers all the way down. Also, arms are smaller while tentacles are longer.
  • Through their arms, Octopuses have the ability to taste and smell

octopusarmimage

ONE OF THE MOST INTELLEGENT ANIMALS IN THE WORLD

  • If you simply search ‘’The most intelligent animals in world’’, you will find octopuses being in there. They are considered the most intelligent animals in the group of invertebrates because they are high skilled hunters and for their ability to solve puzzles.
  • The octopuses have distributed intelligence, they have neurons distributed in their arms. Basically, you can say that each arm has a mind of its own.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cN4ILklAtDs

THE RNA

  • Octopuses have the ability to edit their RNA and scientist don’t know how or why it started. Scientists believe that they do this to adapt to temperature changes in their environment.
  • A simple way to explain the editing of RNA , is to imagine it like editing a document, you delete words or replace words that you want.

THEIR SEX LIFE

  • The female octopus typically eats the head of the male after mating with them.  The male avoids being eaten by jumping on top of her. The female does this because she wont have anything to eat until she gives birth.  After giving birth she dies, she  goes into a self destructive state,  in a process called ”Cellular Suicide.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rX-YiYHahoo

THEIR DIET

  • Octopus have beak which they use to paralyze their preys  and to digest their food
  • Octupuses are carnivores, they eat clams, shrimp, crabs, lobsters, fish, sharks and even birds.
  • When octopuses feel that they are in an unstable environment, they eat their own arms. This process is called Autophagy.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tS5QR8wg94Y

THEIR HABITATS

  • Octopuses are very lonely creatures, they like to live alone, and they don’t interact a lot with other octopuses.
  • They prefer to live in coral reefs, but they can live in different places of the ocean due to their ability to adapt quickly.

giant-pacific-octopus

THANK YOU

Thats is all!  I hope you enjoyed it, I recommed you  that  you search  for more facts on these amazing animals, they are increidible and very interesting.

REFERENCES

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/2016/04/basic-instincts-octopus-mating/

https://www.livescience.com/55478-octopus-facts.html

https://www.grammarly.com/blog/octopi-octopuses/

http://www.businessinsider.com/octopus-weirdest-animals-rna-editing-super-powers-2018-5

ctopuses”. [Online]. Natural History Notebooks. Canadian Museum of Nature.

Last updated 2015-04-28. (Web site consulted 2018-07-20).

https://www.nature.ca/notebooks/english/octopus.htm

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Why you should understand Malaria

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Hello, I am Dante, welcome.

I want to start by talking about an important disease. All these information is not mine, I will list the websites and articles where I got this information, thank you and hope you enjoy it.

  • Why Malaria is important?

In our daily routines we hear a lot about thousands of diseases but which one of those is the most important? The one that affects humanity to a larger scale? The answer is Malaria.

Malaria puts half of the world’s population at risk. In 2015, an estimation of 429,000 deaths were caused by Malaria, the majority being children under the age of 5. (World Health Organization, 2015).  By the next 30 seconds, a child would have died of Malaria.

  • What causes Malaria?

Malaria is a parasitic disease caused by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Falciparum is found in Africa and it’s the deadliest and most complicated of all. Vivax is found in Asia and South America and compared to Falciparum, the effects are not so fatal. (Mandal, 2017)

Recent studies discovered that the Plasmodium simium, who was believed to only attack the monkeys with Malaria, can also affect humans. This type of cases are described with the term Zoonosis, when a disease from animals transmits to humans.

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Map retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6015a3.htm

  • Who transmits Malaria?

The female mosquitos of the genre Anopheles are the ones who transmit the parasitic Plasmodium.  The mosquito bites at night or at dawn. (Mandal, 2017)

One thing to point out is that the female mosquito is the one that’s always bite, the male doesn’t.   The reason for this is that the female needs nutrition from blood for the development of the eggs, the male gets the nutrition from flower nectar and sweet juices. In terms of anatomical features, the male has a feather-like proboscis while the female doesn’t. (Male and Female Mosquitoes, s.f.)

female-male-mosquitoes-521x600 (1)

  • What are the symptoms of Malaria?

The symptoms of Malaria are high fever, anemia (not enough healthy red blood cells) Headache and muscular Pain. (Medline Plus, s.f.)

  • What has been done against Malaria?

  Medical Treatments

In situations where Malaria is diagnosed early, the patient can receive a treatment called is artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), this particular treatment is for Plasmodium Falciparum and is the best available treatment for Malaria that exist today.(Medline Plus, s.f.)

Types of controls for Malaria

Indoor residual spraying (IRS)- as the name implies, it involves spraying the walls and different surfaces of the house with residual insecticide. This was the primary malaria control method that was used during the Global Malaria Eradication.(cdc.gov, 2018)

 

Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) a type of bed nets that protects the people sleeping under them, it reduces Malaria Illness in endemic regions. (cdc.gov, 2018)

 

 Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infancy (IPTi) –  it’s an intermittent preventive treatment  in infancy that reduces clinical malaria and anemia and its believed to prevent  6 millions of cases of malaria and save thousands of lives in Africa. (cdc.gov, 2018)

Information about Malaria controls retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/malaria_worldwide/reduction/index.html

The road of achieving total control of Malaria is hard since the Plasmodium parasite forms resistance to the every new treatment. Big hopes are on experiments using genetic engineering on the mosquitoes but they also face big challenges

For more information on this topic of genetic engineering I recommend you watch this video:

Genetic Engineering and Diseases – Gene Drive & Malaria

 

Websites and articles where I got the information.

(n.d.). Retrieved from Medline Plus: https://medlineplus.gov/spanish/ency/article/000621.htm

(n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/malaria_worldwide/reduction/index.html

(2015, December). Retrieved from World Health Organization: http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/malaria/en/

cdc.gov. (2018, April 17). Retrieved from How Can Malaria Cases and Deaths Be Reduced?: https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/malaria_worldwide/reduction/index.html

Male and Female Mosquitoes. (n.d.). Retrieved from Tiny Mosquitoes: http://www.tinymosquito.com/male-mosquitoes-female-mosquitoes.html

Mandal, D. A. (2017, October 31). Malaria Causes. Retrieved from news.medical: https://www.news-medical.net/health/Malaria-Causes-(Spanish).aspx

http://www.who.int/malaria/areas/treatment/overview/en/